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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Emergency myocardial revascularization after complicated percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: actual surgical approach

Luís Alberto Dallan; Sérgio de Almeida Oliveira; Hedy Cecchy; Siguemituso Ariê; Alexandre Sabino Neto; José Carlos R Iglézias; Geraldo Verginelli; Adib D Jatene

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381990000100006

ABSTRACT

Between July 1981 and February 1990, 2431 patients underwent attempted percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Seventy-nine (3.2%) patients subsequently underwent emergency miocardial revascularization, and 32 (40.5%) developed myocardial infarction with 12 (15.2%) deaths. The operative mortality rate was significantly increased among elderly patients, those with left main occlusive dissection, late coronary thrombosis, and specially among patients with hemodynamic instability after PTCA. Additional minutes or hours of low myocardial and systemic perfusion after failed PTCA also increase the risk of immediate surgical revascularization. Despite the growing role of PTCA in the treatment of more complex coronary atherosclerotic heart diseases, the number of failed procedures that necessitate coronary artery bypass surgery decreased last two years (10/1351). This have been possible by placing a reperfusion catheter (Stack) across the narrowed coronary artery lumen. Surgical results were consistently improved by modifications in myocardial protection techniques, besides the use of reperfusion catheter after failed PTCA.

RESUMO

Entre julho de 1981 e fevereiro de 1990, foram realizados no INCOR 3016 angioplastias transluminais coronárias (ATC), em 2431 pacientes portadores de insuficiência coronária em suas diferentes manifestações. A cirurgia de revascularizaçâo do miocárdio de urgência foi necessária em 79 (3,2%) desses pacientes, dos quais 32 (40,5%) infartaram e 12 (15,2%) faleceram. Dos 1530 pacientes submetidos estivamente a ATC por angina estável, 11,9% (7/59) faleceram no intra ou no pós-operatório. Dentre os 112 pacientes em que a ATC foi realizada de urgência devido a angina instável, 18,2% (2/11) evoluíram para óbito operatório. Nos 789 já infartados previamente à ATC, a mortalidade cirúrgica foi de 33,3% (3/9). A análise estatística demonstrou mortalidade mais elevada em pacientes idosos, em pacientes com dissecção do tronco da artéria coronária esquerda ou trombose coronária tardia e, especialmente, naqueles com instabilidade hemodinâmica após a ATC. O tempo decorrido entre a complicação da ATC e a revascularizaçâo do miocárdio também constitui fator agravante no prognóstico. O número de cirurgias de urgência após ATC diminuiu significativamente nos últimos dois anos (10/1351), a despeito do grau progressivo de complexidade das lesões dilatadas. O emprego de balões com extremidade atraumática e, especialmente, de cateter de reperíusão (Stack), que mantém o fluxo coronário mesmo diante do desprendimento da placa ateromatosa, contribuiu, decisivamente, para esses resultados. As modificações introduzidas na sistematização operatória, principalmente o uso de cardioplegia sangüínea com indução normotérmica e administrada por vias anterógrada e retrógrada, também propiciaram melhores resultados cirúrgicos. A associação desses procedimentos vem se mostrando benéfica, não tendo sido observados óbitos nos últimos 14 meses.
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