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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Blalock-Taussig operation for palliative treatment of congenital heart disease with low pulmonary flow

Miguel A MalufI; José Carlos S AndradeI; Antônio CarvalhoI; Roberto CataniI; Hermínio VegaI; José L AndradeI; Célia SilvaI; Werther B CarvalhoI; Ênio BuffoloI

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381995000300002

ABSTRACT

From January 1990 to November 1994, 72 patients with congenital heart defects and low pulmonary flow underwent modified Blalock-Taussig produce. There were 44 (61.1%) males and 28 (38.8%) females with ages ranging from 2 days to 11 years (average 9 months). Thirty eight (52,8%) patients had Tetralogy of Fallot; 7 (9,7%) had pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PA/IVS); 6 (8.4%), had transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with pulmonary stenosis (PS); 6 (8,4%) had tricuspid atresia (TA) with PS; 6 (8.4%) had double inlet of right ventricle (RV) or left ventricle (LV) and PS; 3 (4.2%) had corrected transposition of the great arteries (CTGA) with ventricular septal defects (VSD) and PS; 2 (2.7%) had double outlet of RV or LV and PS; 2 (2.7%) had atrio-ventricular canal defects (A-VC) and PS; 2 (2.7%) patients had right or left Isomerism and PS. The decision to surgical indication was based on: a) new borns with "ductus dependent" heart defects; b) lactents with important cianosis or hypoxia; c) infants with heart defects without possibilities of biventricular correction. The surgical technique employed was the Blalock-Taussig operation using 4 or 5 mm Polytetrafluoroethy (PTFE) prosthesis in 69 (94.5%) cases, umbilical vein in 3 (4.1%) cases and bovine thoracic artery in 1 (1.4%) case. Before the arteries were clamped 1 mg/kg of héparine was given without mobilization, with protamine, after the procedure. During the post-operative period, anticoagulants were not given. The prosthesis obstruction was the main cause of death and was related to artery anatomy: subclavian and pulmonary artery diameter and/or problems with the technique. The modified Blalock-Taussig operation showed itself to be a reliable palliative treatment to heart defects with low pulmonary flow.

RESUMO

De janeiro de 1990 a novembro de 1994, 72 pacientes portadores de cardiopatias congênitas com hipofluxo pulmonar foram submetidos à operação de Blalock-Taussig. A idade variou entre 2 dias e 11 anos (M:9,0 meses); 44 (61,1%) eram do sexo masculino e 28 (38,8%) do feminino; 38 (52,8%) casos portadores de tétrade de Fallot; 7 (9,7%) atresia pulmonar com septo interventricular íntegro (AP c/ SIVI); 6 (8,4%) transposição das grandes artérias (TGA) + estenose pulmonar (EP); 6 (8,4%) atresia tricúspide (AT) + EP; 6 (8,4%) dupla via de entrada (DVE) do ventrículo direito (VD) ou ventrículo esquerdo (VE) + (EP); 3 (4,2%) transposição corrigida das grandes artérias (TCGA) + comunicação interventricular (CIV) + EP; 2 (2,7%) dupla via de saída (DVS) de VD ou VE + EP; 2 (2,7%) defeito septal atrioventricular (DSAV) + EP; 2 (2,7%) isomerismo direito (D) ou (E) + EP. Os critérios de indicação foram: a) neonatos com cardiopatias "dueto dependente"; b) lactentes com piora de cianose ou crise de hipoxia; c) crianças durante a infância com cardiopatias sem chance de uma correção biventricular. A técnica empregada foi a operação de Blalock-Taussig modificada, interpondo prótese entre artéria subclávia e artéria pulmonar. A prótese de Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) foi usada em 69 (94,5%) casos, veia umbilical em 3 (4,1%) casos e artéria mamária bovina em 1 (1,4%) caso. Durante o ato operatório foi administrada dose única de heparina (1mg x kg peso), não sendo neutralizada no pós-operatório (PO) e no seguimento tardio, dispensado o uso de anticoagulantes ou antiagregantes plaquetários. Houve 8 (11,1%) óbitos no PO imediato: 5 (6,9%) casos por obstrução da prótese (3 foram reoperados), 2 (2,7%) casos por morte súbita (AP c/ SIVI) e 1 (1,3%) devido a processo infeccioso pulmonar. A obstrução da prótese como principal causa de óbito esteve diretamente relacionada à anatomia dos vasos (calibre da artéria subclávia e pulmonar) e ou problemas de técnica cirúrgica. A operação de Blalock-Taussig modificada demonstrou ser um método confiável e seguro no tratamento paliativo das cardiopatias com hipofluxo pulmonar.
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