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ARTIGO ORIGINAL

Revascularização do miocárdio com a artéria radial

Luís Alberto DallanI; Sérgio Almeida de OliveiraI; Ricardo C CorsoI; Ana N PereiraI; José Carlos R IglesiasI; Geraldo VerginelliI; Adib D JateneI

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76381995000200003

RESUMO

Os enxertos com a artéria radial foram utilizados há mais de 20 anos e praticamente abandonados após constatação de elevadas taxas de oclusão ou estenose em estudos pós-operatórios. Mais recentemente, seu emprego foi reiniciado associado ao uso dos bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio. Nos últimos 6 meses, em 30 pacientes realizamos 31 enxertos aorto-coronários com a artéria radial. Concomitantemente, a artéria torácica interna esquerda foi empregada em todos (100%) os pacientes, a artéria torácica interna direita em 9 (30%) pacientes e em 24 (80%) também foram realizadas pontes de veia safena. A média de enxertos por paciente foi de 3,5.0 enxerto de artéria radial foi realizado para a artéria diagonal em 10 (33,3%) pacientes, artéria circunflexa em 8 (26,6%), artéria coronária direita em 8 (26,6%), artéria diagonalis em 4 (13,3%) e artéria interventricular anterior em 1 (3,3%). Quatorze (46,6%) pacientes tinham antecedentes de infarto do miocárdio e em 2 (6,6%) tratava-se de reoperação. Em 3 pacientes realizou-se a endarterectomia coronária e uma dessas artérias recebeu enxerto com artéria radial. A artéria radial esquerda foi utilizada em 28 (93,4%) pacientes e a direita em 2 (6,6%). A artéria radial foi anastomosada à aorta ascendente como enxerto livre, diretamente com sutura contínua de Polipropileno 7-0. Completada a anastomose, a pinça da aorta era removida, para avaliação do fluxo sangüíneo através da artéria radial. Todos os pacientes receberam nifedipina no intra e no pós-operatório, quando se associou o AAS. O calibre da artéria radial variou de 2,5 mm a 3,75 mm e nenhum paciente apresentou sinais de isquemia ou outras alterações na mão. Não houve mortalidade nesta série, nem complicações per-operatórias conseqüentes ao uso do enxerto. O cateterismo precoce, antes da alta hospitalar, foi realizado em 7 (23,3%) pacientes e em todos o enxerto encontrava-se pérvio e sem espasmo (um deles para a artéria submetida a endarterectomia). A artéria radial parece constituir uma alternativa de grande importância na revascularização do miocárdio, especialmente após o advento dos bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio. Entretanto, é necessário maior número de estudos e o seguimento a longo prazo dos pacientes, para conclusões definitivas.

ABSTRACT

The radial artery (RA) was used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass many years ago. Some years later, the graft was abandoned due to of a high incidence of narrowing or occlusion. The advent of new antispastic drugs led us to reinvestigate the use of the RA for coronary artery bypass grafting. Since May 1994,30 patients underwent myocardial revascularization using 31 RA grafts (1 patient received 2 grafts) at our Service. The left internal thoracic artery (LITA) was concomitantly used in all (100%) patients, the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) in 9 (30%) patients and a saphenous vein graft in 24 (80%) cases. A mean of 3.5 graft per patient was performed. The RA was anastomosed to the diagonal (n=10/33,3%), circunflex (n=8/26.6%), right coronary (n=8/26.6%), diagonalis (n=4/13.3%) and anterior interventricular artery (n=1/3.3%). Two (6.6%) patients presented for redo coronary surgery and 14 (46%) had prior myocardial infarction. Two patients underwent associated ventricular aneurismectomy and 3 coronary endarterectomy. The left RA was used in 28 (93.4%) patients, and the right RA in the 2 (6.6%) remaining. The RA was used as a free graft. The proximal end of the RA was directly anastomosed to the ascending aorta using a 7-0 Polypropylene suture. After complete, the aortic clamp was removed and the blood flow throught the RA was tested. The distal anastomosis was then performed using a running 7-0 Polypropylene suture. All patientes received diltiazem started intraoperatively and continued at the follow-up period, when the AAS was associated. There was no mortality in this series. Angiographic controls were obtained in 7 (23.3%) patients before the Hospital discharge, with all patent grafts without any abnormality. We have not observed any ischemic symptoms of the hand in this series. We believe that the RA is a valuable alternative procedure to the myocardial revascularization, specially after the advent of new antispastic drugs. However, a larger study including late control angiograms is still required to establish definitive conclusions.
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