lock Open Access lock Peer-Reviewed




Focus on quality of life

Rosangela MonteiroI; Domingo M BraileII; Ricardo BrandauIII; Fabio B JateneIV

DOI: 10.1590/S0102-76382010000400022


This article aims to discuss aspects concerning Health-related to quality of life concepts. This paper presents some piece of information regarding the quality of life instruments.


Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir aspectos relacionados ao conceito de qualidade de vida em Saúde. Este artigo apresenta também informações relacionadas aos instrumentos de qualidade de vida.

The President of the United States of America mentioned the term quality of life with a repercussion for the first time in 1964. At that time, Lyndon Johnson claimed, "The nation's goals cannot be measured merely by citizen's bank accounts, but first and foremost by the quality of life given to a nation's."[1].

Since then, the quality of life is undoubtedly one of the most commented and discussed topics in the news, in different forums. In the lay press and in various situations of the marketing related to products and services, the promise of improved quality of life is present. Similarly, in scientific publications it is often seen reference to the assessment of quality of life.

However, after all what is quality of life?

Initially, the term quality of life was associated with improvements in standards of living, particularly linked to acquiring of material goods. Subsequently, the quality of life came to embody a sense of well-being, personal accomplishment, and quality of relationships, education, lifestyle, health and leisure. Finally, it embodied the psychological, physical, and social aspects, besides the economic ones [2]. Therefore, it is clear that the concept of quality of life is very comprehensive and includes objective and subjective aspects.

The Group Quality of Life at the Division of Mental Health from the World Health Organization (WHO) defined quality of life as "the individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." [3].

Specifically, in the health care field, the improve on quality of life came to be regarded as an outcome to be achieved after care practices, as well as public policy actions in health promotion and disease prevention. Therefore, information about the quality of life has been used as indicators for assessing the effectiveness, efficiency, and impact of certain treatments in groups of patients [4].

If on one hand the increasing technological development of medicine made possible the treatment of various diseases, ensuring greater longevity to the population, in the other hand, it triggered a process of dehumanization. Thus, the concern with the concept of "quality of life" comes to rescue the concern with the broader aspects, such as the control of symptoms, reduced mortality or increased life expectancy.

This concern is very well illustrated by Fleck et al. [5]. Flack said: "the Oncology was the specialty that, par excellence, was faced with the need to assess the conditions of the patients' life who had increased their survival due to treatments, given that many times in the searching of adding years to life, the need to add life to years was put aside."

Initially, the assessment of quality of life and its measurement was meant to complement the analysis of survival, by being added to other clinical parameters. Nevertheless, that review had its scope broadened when it joined the cost-effectiveness analyses.

Quality of life is an expression rooted in professional practice and is increasingly present in specialized publications. In our environment, such as an expression has been used in articles that apply questionnaires validated or not in order to measure them, or in studies simply discussing the impact of a particular procedure or intervention [6-55].

In a search on PubMed website, using the keywords "quality of life" and "cardiovascular surgical procedures", we could retrieve 3,704 specific articles concerning to the topic. Similar surveys on the Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery website, from 1997 to 2010, we could list 101 articles in which the term quality of life was used. Only in the last three years, there have been published 28 articles 56-83. Likewise, in a search on PubMed website, using the descriptor "quality of life", we could identify in the Brazilian Archives of Cardiology the publication of 28 articles in the last three years as well [84-111].

Particularly, in cardiac surgery, more and more the possibility of improving the quality of life has been decisive in indicating the procedure.

Several decades ago instruments for assessing quality of life have been proposed, most of them developed in the United States. In parallel, several researchers have focused on translating these quality of life instruments for use in other countries. However, it is important to remember that a simple translation is insufficient. It is necessary an adjustment and validation in other languages and cultures. The process of translation and validation of a quality of life instrument requires more effort than merely idiomatic and semantics issues.

There are instruments for assessing generic quality of life and other for specific diseases.

The generic questionnaires are not specific to only one disease. In general, they are more appropriate for epidemiological studies, planning and evaluation of the health system. Among the questionnaires on quality of life, we may cite the generic Short-Form 36-item (SF-36) health survey and EuroQoL (EQ-5D).

Os questionários genéricos não são específicos de uma única doença, em geral, são mais apropriados a estudos epidemiológicos, planejamento e avaliação do sistema de saúde. Dentre os questionários de qualidade de vida genéricos podemos citar o Short-Form 36-item (SF-36) health survey e o EuroQoL (EQ-5D). In the field of Cardiology, for example, there are specific questionnaires, such as the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) [112], MacNew [113] the Myocardial Infarction Dimensional Assessment Scale (MIDAS) [114], and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLHF) [115].

Normally, disease-specific instruments are clinically more sensitive to detect changes, though each has advantages and disadvantages. These instruments seek to evaluate, for the most part, the quality of daily life of people subsequent to diseases and medical procedures. Many instruments will include indicators to subjective aspects of living with illness.

Finally, the great importance of the instruments for assessing quality of life lies not in the fact of showing only whether the changes are statistically significant or not, but if they are clinically meaningful [116].


1. Organização Mundial de Saúde. Versão em português dos instrumentos de avaliação de qualidade de vida (WHOQOL). Geneva: WHO;1998. Disponível em: Acesso em: 12/9/2010

2. Seidl EMF, Zannon CMLC. Qualidade de vida e saúde: aspectos conceituais e metodológicos. Cad Saúde Pública. 2004;20(2):580-8. [MedLine]

3. Kluthcovsky ACGC, Takayanagui AMM. Qualidade de vida: aspectos conceituais. Rev Salus. 2007;1(1):13-5.

4. The WHOQOL Group. The development of the World Health Organization quality of life assessment instrument (the WHOQOL). In: Orley J, Kuyken W, editors. Quality of life assessment: international perspectives. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; 1994. p.41-60.

5. Fleck MP, Leal OF, Louzada S, Xavier M, Cachamovich E, Vieira G, et al. Desenvolvimneto da versão em português do instrumento de avaliação de qualidade de vida da OMS (WHOQOL-100). Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 1999;21(1):21-8.

6.Guimarães GV, D'Avila V, Bocchi EA, Carvalho VO. Norepinephrine remains increased in the six-minute walking test after heart transplantation. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(6):587-91.

7. Wolosker N, Munia MA, Kauffman P, de Campos JR, Yazbek G, Puech-Leão P. Is gender a predictive factor for satisfaction among patients undergoing sympathectomy to treat palmar hyperhidrosis? Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(6):583-6.

8. Carrillo C, Vizeu H, Soares-Júnior LA, Fava M, Odone Filho V. Dental approach in the pediatric oncology patient: characteristics of the population treated at the dentistry unit in a pediatric oncology Brazilian teaching hospital. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2010;65(6):569-73.

9. Satomi E, Sitta MC, Machado AN, Garcez Leme LE. Identification and treatment of osteoporosis among elderly patients with hip fractures. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(12):1201-4.

10. Santos MF, Furtado RN, Konai MS, Castiglioni ML, Marchetti RR, Natour J. Effectiveness of radiation synovectomy with samarium-153 particulate hydroxyapatite in rheumatoid arthritis patients with knee synovitis: a controlled randomized double-blind trial. Clinics (São Paulo). 2009;64(12):1187-93.

11. Meyer AL, Teixeira MG, Almeida MG, Kiss DR, Nahas SC, Cecconello I. Quality of life in the late follow-up of ulcerative colitis patients submitted to restorative proctocolectomy with sphincter preservation over ten years ago. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(9):877-83.

12. Moraes-Filho JP, Navarro-Rodriguez T, Eisig JN, Barbuti RC, Chinzon D, Quigley EM. Comorbidities are frequent in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease in a tertiary health care hospital. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(8):785-90.

13. Yazbek G, Wolosker N, Kauffman P, Campos JR, Puech-Leão P, Jatene FB. Twenty months of evolution following sympathectomy on patients with palmar hyperhidrosis: sympathectomy at the T3 level is better than at the T2 level. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(8):743-9.

14. Gusmão JL, Mion D Jr, Pierin AM. Health-related quality of life and blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with and without complications. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(7):619-28.

15. Iglezias JC, Dallan LA, Lourenção A Jr, Celullare AL, Pereira R, Stolf NA. Degree of risk related to procedures performed in conjunction with surgical myocardial revascularization in octogenarians. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(5):387-92.

16. Lopes AD, Vilar e Furtado R, Silva CA, Yi LC, Malfatti CA, Araújo SA. Comparison of self-report and interview administration methods based on the Brazilian versions of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in patients with rotator cuff 17. disorders. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(2):121-5.

17. Nóbrega TC, Jaluul O, Machado AN, Paschoal SM, Jacob Filho W. Quality of life and multimorbidity of elderly outpatients. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2009;64(1):45-50.

18. Martinelli LM, Mizutani BM, Mutti A, D'Elia MP, Coltro RS, Matsubara BB. Quality of life and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a community health care program population. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(6):783-8.

19. Munia MA, Wolosker N, Kaufmann P, Campos JR, Puech-Leão P. Sustained benefit lasting one year from T4 instead of T3-T4 sympathectomy for isolated axillary hyperhidrosis. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(6):771-4.

20. Felix VN, Corrêa SM, Soares RJ. A therapeutic maneuver for oropharyngeal dysphagia in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(5):661-6.

21. Souza PM, Jacob-Filho W, Santarém JM, Silva AR, Li HY, Burattini MN. Progressive resistance training in elderly HIVpositive patients: does it work? Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(5):619-24.

22. Assis MA, Mello MF, Scorza FA, Cadrobbi MP, Schooedl AF, Gomes da Silva S, et al. Evaluation of physical activity habits in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(4):473-8.

23. Castro RA, Arruda RM, Zanetti MR, Santos PD, Sartori MG, Girão MJ. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial of pelvic floor muscle training, electrical stimulation, vaginal cones, and no active treatment in the management of stress urinary incontinence. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(4):465-72.

24. Bocalini DS, Santos L, Serra AJ. Physical exercise improves the functional capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(4):437-42.

25. Loureiro MP, Campos JR, Kauffman P, Jatene FB, Weigmann S, Fontana A. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for women: effect on compensatory sweat. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(2):189-96.

26. Paschoal SM, Jacob Filho W, Litvoc J. Development of Elderly Quality of Life Index--EqoLI: item reduction and distribution into dimensions. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2008;63(2):179-88.

27. Campolina AG, Bortoluzzo AB, Ferraz MB, Ciconelli RM. The SF-6D Brazil: construction models and applications in health economics. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010;56(4):409-14. [MedLine]

28. Tanuri AL, Feldner PC Jr, Bella ZI, Castro RA, Sartori MG, Girão MJ. Retropubic and transobturator sling in treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010;56(3):348-54. [MedLine]

29. Christo PP. Cognitive alterations associated with HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010;56(2):242-7. [MedLine]

30. Ammirati AL, Watanabe R, Aoqui C, Draibe SA, Carvalho AB, Abensur H, et al. Hemoglobin levels in hemodialysis patients treated with epoetin: a Brazilian experience. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010;56(2):209-13. [MedLine]

31. Poeta LS, Duarte MF, Giuliano IC. Health-related quality of life of obese children. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010;56(2):168-72. [MedLine]

32. Lourenção LG, Moscardini AC, Soler ZA. Health and quality of life of medical residents. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2010;56(1):81-91. [MedLine]

33. Brandão DM, Nascimento JL, Vianna LG. Evaluation of functional capacity and quality of life of the elderly after ischemic stroke with and without dysphagia. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009;55(6):738-43. [MedLine]

34. Furtado F, Hochman B, Ferrara SF, Dini GM, Nunes JM, Juliano Y, Ferreira LM. What factors affect the quality of life of patients with keloids? Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009;55(6):700-4. [MedLine]

35. Sasse AD, Sasse EC. Cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant anastrozol in post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009;55(5):535-40. [MedLine]

36. Gebara OC, Scapinelli A, Aldrighi JM. Does the use of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women promote benefits? Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009;55(4):378-9. [MedLine]

37. Dreyer G, Mattos D, Figueredo-Silva J, Norões J. Paradigm shift in bancroftian filariasis. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009;55(3):355-62. [MedLine]

38. Moreira CA, Garletti Junior W, Lima LF, Lima CR, Ribeiro JF, Miranda AF. Assessment or the basic psychometric properties for the Portuguese version of the KDQOL-SF. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2009;55(1):22-8. [MedLine]

39. Virtuoso Júnior JS, Guerra RO. Factors associated to functional limitations in elderly of low income. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(5):430-5. [MedLine]

40. Cruz RC, Albuquerque MF, Campelo AR, Costa e Silva EJ, Mazza E, Menezes RC, et al. Pulmonary tuberculosis: association between extent of the residual pulmonary lesion and alteration in the lung function. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(5):406-10. [MedLine]

41. Valadares AL, Pinto-Neto AM, Conde DM, Osis MJ, Sousa MH, Costa-Paiva L. The opinion of women on menopause and treatment of its symptoms. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(4):299-304. [MedLine]

42. Kaliks RA, Del Giglio A. Management of advanced prostate cancer. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(2):178-82. [MedLine]

43. Orsi JV, Nahas FX, Gomes HC, Andrade CH, Veiga DF, Novo NF, Ferreira LM. Impact of obesity on the functional capacity of women. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(2):106-9. [MedLine]

44. Pimenta FA, Simil FF, Tôrres HO, Amaral CF, Rezende CF, Coelho TO, et al. Retiree quality of life assessment with SF-36 questionnaire. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(1):55-60. [MedLine]

45. Dellaroza MS, Furuya RK, Cabrera MA, Matsuo T, Trelha C, Yamada KN, et al. Characterization of chronic pain and analgesic approaches among community-dwelling elderly. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(1):36-41. [MedLine]

46. Fozzatti MC, Palma P, Herrmann V, Dambros M. Impact of global postural reeducation for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2008;54(1):17-22. [MedLine]

47. Saccomann IC, Cintra FA, Gallani MC. Health-related quality of life among the elderly with heart failure: a generic measurement. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010;128(4):192-6. [MedLine]

48. Symvoulakis E, Anyfantakis D, Lionis C. Restless legs syndrome: literature review. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010;128(3):167-70. [MedLine]

49. Santos JB, Mendonça M, Pinheiro MC, Tamai S, Uchida R, Miorin LA, et al. Negative correlations between anxiety-depressive symptoms and quality of life among patients on hemodialysis. Sao Paulo Med J. 2010;128(2):102-3. [MedLine]

50. Couto ER, Couto E, Vian B, Gregório Z, Nomura ML, Zaccaria R, et al. Quality of life, depression and anxiety among pregnant women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes. Sao Paulo Med J. 2009;127(4):185-9. [MedLine]

51. Zubaran C, Persch K, Tarso D, Ioppi A, Mezzich J. The correlation between health status and quality of life in southern Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126(5):257-61. [MedLine]

52. Bohlke M, Nunes DL, Marini SS, Kitamura C, Andrade M, Von-Gysel MP. Predictors of quality of life among patients on dialysis in southern Brazil. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126(5):252-6. [MedLine]

53. Jorge RT, Sabino Neto M, Natour J, Veiga DF, Jones A, Ferreira LM. Brazilian version of the body dysmorphic disorder examination. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126(2):87-95. [MedLine]

54. Fabrício VC, Amado F, Del Giglio A. Low-cost outpatient chemotherapy regimen of cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for advanced head and neck and esophageal carcinomas. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126(1):63-6. [MedLine]

55. Steiner ML, Fernandes CE, Strufaldi R, Azevedo LH, Stephan C, Pompei LM, et al. Accuracy study on "Osteorisk": a new osteoporosis screening clinical tool for women over 50 years old. Sao Paulo Med J. 2008;126(1):23-8. [MedLine]

56. Gaia DF, Palma JH, Ferreira CBND, Souza JAM, Agreli G, Guilhen JCS, et al. Implante transapical de valva aórtica: resultados de uma nova prótese brasileira. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(3): 293-302. [MedLine] View article

57. Kalil RAK, Salles FB, Giusti II, Rodrigues CG, Han SW, Sant'Anna RT, et al. Terapia gênica com VEGF para angiogênese na angina refratária: ensaio clínico fase I/II. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(3):311-21. [MedLine] View article

58. Yoshimori DY, Cipriano Jr. G, Mair V, Branco JNR, Buffolo E. Avaliação e seguimento em médio prazo em candidatos a transplante cardíaco submetidos a exercício de baixa intensidade. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(3):333-40. [MedLine] View article

59. Martini MR, Barbisan JN. Influência da atividade física no tempo livre em pacientes no seguimento de até dois anos após CRM. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(3):359-64. [MedLine] View article

60. Dinkhuysen JJ, Cipullo R, Contreras C, Finger MA, Manrique R, Magalhães HM, et al. Teste farmacológico pré-implante na hipertensão pulmonar elevada e fixa em candidatos a transplante heterotópico. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(3):371-6. [MedLine] View article

61. Magedanz EH, Bodanese LC, Guaragna JCVC, Albuquerque LC, Martins V, Minossi SD, ET al. Elaboração de escore de risco para mediastinite pós-cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(2):154-9. [MedLine] View article

62. Coronel CC, Bordignon S, Bueno AD, Lima LL, Nesralla I. Variáveis perioperatórias de função ventilatória e capacidade física em indivíduos submetidos a transplante cardíaco. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(2):190-6. [MedLine] View article

63. Iglézias JCR, Chi A, Talans A, Dallan LAO, Lourenção Júnior A, Stolf NAG. Desfechos clínicos pós-revascularização do miocárdio no paciente idoso. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(2):229-33. [MedLine] View article

64. Soncini da Rosa GR, Takizawa N, Schimidt D, Sugita M. Tratamento cirúrgico da síndrome da veia cava superior causado por timoma invasivo. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(2):257-60. [MedLine] View article

65. Nery RM, Barbisan JN. Efeito da atividade física de lazer no prognóstico da cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2010;25(1):73-8. [MedLine] View article

66. Almeida RMS. Remodelamento reverso cirúrgico do ventrículo esquerdo: seguimento de 111 meses. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(4):470-7. [MedLine] View article

67. Oliveira JVC, Vicente WVA, Rodrigues AJ, Ferreira CA, Alves Junior L, Bassetto S, et al. Cirurgia da insuficiência mitral no tratamento da insuficiência cardíaca avançada. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(4):540-51. [MedLine] View article

68. Delbin MA, Antunes E, Zanesco A. Papel do exercício físico na isquemia/reperfusão pulmonar e resposta inflamatória. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(4):552-61. [MedLine] View article

69. Garbossa A, Maldaner E, Mortari DM, Biasi J, Leguisamo CP. Efeitos de orientações fisioterapêuticas sobre a ansiedade de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(3):359-66. [MedLine] View article

70. Helito RAB, Branco JNR, D'Innocenzo M, Machado RC, Enio Buffolo E. Qualidade de vida dos candidatos a transplante de coração. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(1):50-7. [MedLine] View article

71. Pinto Júnior VC, Rodrigues LC, Muniz CR. Reflexões sobre a formulação de política de atenção cardiovascular pediátrica no Brasil. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(1):73-80. [MedLine] View article

72. Pinto NC, Pereira MHC, Stolf NAG, Chavantes MC. Laser de baixa intensidade em deiscência aguda de safenectomia: proposta terapêutica. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2009;24(1):88-91. [MedLine] View article

73. Segalote RC, Pomerantzeff PMP, Brandão CMA, Stolf NAG. Cirurgia de preservação da valva aórtica em idosos com estenose aórtica. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(4):519-23. [MedLine] View article

74. Reis C, Barbiero SM, Ribas L. O efeito do índice de massa corporal sobre as complicações no pós-operatório de cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio em idosos. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(4):524-9. [MedLine] View article

75. Alves Júnior L, Rodrigues AJ, Évora PRB, Basseto S, Scorzoni Filho A, Luciano PM, et al. Fatores de risco em septuagenários ou mais idosos submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio e ou operações valvares. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(4):550-5. [MedLine] View article

76. Souza DSR, Gomes WJ. O futuro da veia safena como conduto na cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(3):III-VII. [MedLine] View article

77. Silva VF, Ishigai MMS, Freymüller E, Branco JNR, Gaia DF, Gabriel EA, et al. Avaliação microscópica e ultra-estrutural do endotélio de veia safena preparada pela técnica "no touch". Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(3):III-VII. [MedLine]

78. Finoti RG, Braile DM, Croti UA, Oliveira MAB, Godoy MF, Leal JCF, et al. Avaliação de oxigenador de membrana infantil em ovinos. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(3):358-64. [MedLine] View article

79. Benfatti RA, Pontes JCDV, Gomes OM, Dias AEMAS, Gomes Júnior JF, Gardenal N, et al. Substituição valvar mitral com papilopexia cruzada e constrição anular em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(3):372-7. [MedLine] View article

80. Arcêncio L, Souza MD, Bortolin BS, Fernandes ACM, Rodrigues AJ, Evora PRB. Cuidados pré e pós-operatórios em cirurgia cardiotorácica: uma abordagem fisioterapêutica. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(3):400-10. [MedLine] View article

81. Martin JFV, Melo ROV, Sousa LP. Disfunção cognitiva após cirurgia cardíaca. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(3):245-55.

82. Mota AL, Rodrigues AJ, Évora PRB. Circulação extracorpórea em adultos no século XXI. Ciência, arte ou empirismo? Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(1):78-92. [MedLine] View article

83. Cressoni ES, Avanci LE, Braile DM, Cicogna AC, Lima-Oliveira APM, Gerez MAE, et al. Proteção miocárdica ao coração hipertrofiado: o eterno desafio. Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc. 2008;23(1):97-107. [MedLine] View article

84. Moriel G, Roscani MG, Matsubara LS, Cerqueira AT, Matsubara BB. Quality of life in patients with severe and stable coronary atherosclerotic disease. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010. [Epub ahead of print] [MedLine]

85. Pêgo-Fernandes PM, Moreira LF, Souza GE, Bacal F, Bocchi EA, Stolf NA, et al. Endoscopic left sympathetic blockade in the treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010. [Epub ahead of print] [MedLine]

86. Aguiar MI, Farias DR, Pinheiro ML, Chaves ES, Rolim IL, Almeida PC. Quality of life of patients that had a heart transplant: application of Whoqol-Bref scale. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010. [Epub ahead of print] [MedLine]

87. Ribeiro RA, Stella SF, Zimerman LI, Pimentel M, Rohde LE, Polanczyk CA. Cost-effectiveness of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Brazil in the public and private sectors. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010. [Epub ahead of print] [MedLine]

88. Melchiors AC, Correr CJ, Pontarolo R, Santos FO, Paula e Souza RA. Quality of life in hypertensive patients and concurrent validity of Minichal-Brazil. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(3):337-44.

89. Miotto HC, Camargos FR, Ribeiro CV, Goulart EM, Moreira MC. Effects of the use of theoretical versus theoretical-practical training on CPR. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(3):328-31. [MedLine]

90. Costa MF, Barros MP, Lima JH. The impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the cardiac rehabilitation of patients with congestive heart failure: case report. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(1):e7-9.

91. Nogueira ID, Servantes DM, Nogueira PA, Pelcerman A, Salvetti XM, Salles F, Almeida DR, Mello MT, Filho OC, Filho JA. Correlation between quality of life and functional capacity in cardiac failure. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(2):238-43. [MedLine]

92. Benetti M, Araujo CL, Santos RZ. Cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life at different exercise intensities after myocardial infarction. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(3):399-404. [MedLine]

93. Marques F, Castro RB, Nobre F, Pintya AO, Gallo L Jr, Maciel BC, et al. Replacement of carvedilol for propranolol in patients with heart failure. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(1):107-14. [MedLine]

94. Araújo DV, Teich V, Passos RB, Martins SC. Analysis of the cost-effectiveness of thrombolysis with alteplase in stroke. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;95(1):12-20. [MedLine]

95. Zortéa K. Quality of life in chronic diseases. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(5):661. [MedLine]

96. Ferreira GM, Haeffner MP, Barreto SS, Dall'Ago P. Incentive spirometry with expiratory positive airway pressure brings benefits after myocardial revascularization. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(2):230-5.

97. Silva CP, Lorenzi-Filho G, Marcondes B, Osmundo G Jr, Mangini S, Freitas AF Jr, et al. Reduction of central sleep apnea in heart failure patients with beta-blockers therapy. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(2):223-9.

98. Veiga VC, Rojas SS, Souza FS, Vieira RW, Silva Junior A, Patrício ML, et al. Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac resynchronization therapy: two-year follow-up period. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(1):119-26. [MedLine]

99. Nakasato M, Strunk CM, Guimarães G, Rezende MV, Bocchi EA. Is the low-sodium diet actually indicated for all patients with stable heart failure? Arq Bras Cardiol. 2010;94(1):92-101. [MedLine]

100. Kramer AS, Lazzarotto AR, Sprinz E, Manfroi WC. Metabolic abnormalities, antiretroviral therapy and cardiovascular disease in elderly patients with HIV. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;93(5):561-8. [MedLine]

101. Zanini CR, Jardim PC, Salgado CM, Nunes MC, Urzêda FL, Carvalho MV, et al. Music therapy effects on the quality of life and the blood pressure of hypertensive patients. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;93(5):534-40. [MedLine]

102. Sá LA, Rassi S, Batista MA. Conventional ventricular stimulation effects on patients with normal ventricular function. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;93(2):167-73. [MedLine]

103. Santos JJ, Plewka JE, Brofman PR. Quality of life and clinical indicators in heart failure: a multivariate analysis. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;93(2):159-66. [MedLine]

104. Carvalho VO, Guimarães GV, Carrara D, Bacal F, Bocchi EA. Validation of the Portuguese version of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;93(1):39-44. [MedLine]

105. Berisha V, Bajraktari G, Dobra D, Haliti E, Bajrami R, Elezi S. Echocardiography and 6-minute walk test in left ventricular systolic dysfunction. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2009;92(2):121-34. [MedLine]

106. Souza EN, Quadros AS, Maestri R, Albarrán C, Sarmento-Leite R. Predictors of quality of life change after an acute coronary event. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;91(4):229-35.

107. Nogueira CR, Hueb W, Takiuti ME, Girardi PB, Nakano T, Fernandes F, et al. Quality of life after on-pump and offpump coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;91(4):217-22.

108. Rolim LC, Sá JR, Chacra AR, Dib SA. Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy: risk factors, clinical impact and early diagnosis. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;90(4):e24-31.

109. Bocchi EA, Vilas-Boas F, Moreira MC, Barretto AC, Lage S, Albuquerque D, et al; Investigators of BELIEF Study; Heart Failure Working Group of Brazilian Society of Cardiology. Levosimendan in decompensated heart failure patients: efficacy in a Brazilian cohort. Results of the BELIEF study. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;90(3):182-90. [MedLine]

110. Lunelli RP, Rabello ER, Stein R, Goldmeier S, Moraes MA. Sexual activity after myocardial infarction: taboo or lack of knowledge? Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;90(3):156-9. [MedLine]

111. Schulz RB, Rossignoli P, Correr CJ, Fernández-Llimós F, Toni PM. Validation of the short form of the Spanish hypertension quality of life questionnaire (MINICHAL) for Portuguese (Brazil). Arq Bras Cardiol. 2008;90(2):127-31. [MedLine]

112. Spertus JA, Winder JA, Dewhurst TA, Deyo RA, Prodzinski J, McDonell M, et al. Development and evaluation of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire: a new functional status measure for coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1995;25(2):333-41. [MedLine]

113. Höfer S, Lim L, Guyatt G, Oldridge N. The MacNew heart disease health-related quality of life instrument: a summary. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2004;2:3. [MedLine]

114. Thompson DR, Jenkinson C, Roebuck A, Lewin RJP, Boyle RM, Chandola T. Development and validation of a short measure of health status for individuals with acute myocardial infarction: the myocardial infarction dimensional assessment scale (MIDAS). Qual Life Res. 2002;11(6):535-43. [MedLine]

115. Rector TS, Kubo SH, Cohn JN. Patients' self-assessment of their congestive heart failure, part 2: content, reliability and validity of a new measure, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. Heart Fail. 1987;3:198-209.

116. Ski CF, Thompson DR. Quality of life in cardiovascular disease: What is it and why and how should we measure it? Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2010;9(4):201-2. [MedLine]

Article receive on Friday, October 1, 2010

CCBY All scientific articles published at are licensed under a Creative Commons license


All rights reserved 2017 / © 2023 Brazilian Society of Cardiovascular Surgery DEVELOPMENT BY